Martinique #67 (1908)

Martinique #67 (1908)
Martinique #67 (1908)

Martinique is an insular region of France located in the Lesser Antilles in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about 280 miles (450 kilometers) northeast of the coast of South America and about 435 miles (700 km) southeast of the Dominican Republic. It is directly north of St. Lucia, northwest of Barbados, southeast of both are Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic and south of Dominica. and had a population of 385,551 inhabitants as of January 2013. Like Guadeloupe, it is an overseas region of France, consisting of a single overseas department. Martinique was a French colony between 1886 and 1947 during which time it issued its own stamps; since 1947, the island has used the stamps of metropolitan France.

As with the other overseas departments, Martinique is one of the eighteen regions of France (being an overseas region) and an integral part of the République française (French Republic). As part of France, Martinique is part of the European Union, and its currency is the euro. The official language is French, and virtually the entire population also speaks Antillean Creole (Créole Martiniquais).

The total area of Martinique is 420 square miles (1,100 km²), of which 15 square miles (40 km²) is water and the rest land. Martinique is the third largest island in the Lesser Antilles after Trinidad and Guadeloupe. It stretches 43 miles (70 km) in length and 19 miles (30 km) in width. The highest point is the volcano of Mont Pelée at 4,583 feet (1,397 meters) above sea level.

The island is volcanic in origin, lying along the subduction fault where the South American Plate slides beneath the Caribbean Plate. Martinique has eight different centers of volcanic activity. The oldest rocks are andesitic lavas dated to about 24 million years ago, mixed with tholeiitic magma containing iron and magnesium. Mont Pelée, the island’s most dramatic feature, formed about 400,000 years ago. Pelée erupted in 1792, 1851, and twice in 1902. The eruption of May 8, 1902, destroyed Saint-Pierre and killed 28,000 people in just two minutes; that of August 30, 1902, caused nearly 1,100 deaths, mostly in Morne-Red and Ajoupa-Bouillon.

The Atlantic, or “windward” coast of Martinique is difficult for the navigation of ships. A combination of coastal cliffs, shallow coral reefs and cays, and strong winds make the area a notoriously hazardous zone for sea traffic. The peninsula of Caravelle clearly separates the north Atlantic and south Atlantic coast. The Caribbean, or “leeward” coast of Martinique is much more favorable to sea traffic. In addition to being shielded from the harsh Atlantic trade winds by the island, it also descends steeply from the shore. This ensures most potential hazards are too deep underwater to be an issue and also prevents the growth of corals that could otherwise pose a threat to passing ships.

The north of the island is mountainous. It features four ensembles of pitons (volcanoes) and mornes (mountains): the Piton Conil on the extreme North, which dominates the Dominica Channel; Mont Pelée, an active volcano; the Morne Jacob; and the Pitons du Carbet, an ensemble of five extinct volcanoes covered with rainforest and dominating the Bay of Fort de France at 3,924 feet (1,196 m). Mont Pelée’s volcanic ash has created gray and black sand beaches in the north (in particular between Anse Ceron and Anse des Gallets), contrasting markedly from the white sands of Les Salines in the south.

The south is more easily traversed, though it still features some impressive geographic features. Because it is easier to travel and because of the many beaches and food facilities throughout this region, the south receives the bulk of the tourist traffic. The beaches from Pointe de Bout, through Diamant (which features right off the coast of Roche de Diamant), St. Luce, the department of St. Anne and down to Les Salines are popular.

Martinique owes its name to Christopher Columbus, who sighted the island in 1493, and finally landed on June 15, 1502. The island was then called Jouanacaëra-Matinino, which came from a mythical island described by the Tainos of Hispaniola. According to historian Sydney Daney, the island was called Jouanacaëra by the Caribs, which means “the island of iguanas”. When Columbus returned to the island in 1502, he rechristened the island as Martinica. The name then evolved into Madinina (“Island of Flowers”), Madiana, and Matinite. Finally, through the influence of the neighboring island of Dominica (La Dominique), it came to be known as Martinique.

The island was occupied first by Arawaks, then by Caribs. The Carib people had migrated from the mainland to the islands about 1201 CE, according to carbon dating of artifacts. They were largely displaced, exterminated and assimilated by the Taino, who were resident on the island in the 1490s.

Christopher Columbus charted the island in 1493, making the region known to European interests, but it was not until June 15, 1502, on his fourth voyage, that he actually landed, leaving several pigs and goats on the island. However, the Spaniards ignored the island as other parts of the New World were of greater interest to them.

On September 15, 1635, Pierre Belain d’Esnambuc, French governor of the island of St. Kitts, landed in the harbor of St. Pierre with 150 French settlers after being driven off St. Kitts by the English. D’Esnambuc claimed Martinique for the French King Louis XIII and the French Compagnie des Îles de l’Amérique (Company of the American Islands), and established the first European settlement at Fort Saint-Pierre (now St. Pierre). D’Esnambuc died in 1636, leaving the company and Martinique in the hands of his nephew, Jacques Dyel du Parquet, who in 1637, became governor of the island.

In 1636, the indigenous Caribs rose against the settlers to drive them off the island in the first of many skirmishes. The French successfully repelled the natives and forced them to retreat to the eastern part of the island, on the Caravelle Peninsula in the region then known as the Capesterre. When the Carib revolted against French rule in 1658, the Governor Charles Houël du Petit Pré retaliated with war against them. Many were killed; those who survived were taken captive and expelled from the island. Some Carib had fled to Dominica or St. Vincent, where the French agreed to leave them at peace.

Because there were few Catholic priests in the French Antilles, many of the earliest French settlers were Huguenots who sought greater religious freedom than what they could experience in mainland France. They were quite industrious and became quite prosperous. As many of the planters on Martinique were themselves Huguenot, and who were sharing in the suffering under the harsh strictures of the Revocation, they began plotting to emigrate from Martinique with many of their recently arrived brethren. Many of them were encouraged by their Catholic brethren who looked forward to the departure of the heretics and seizing their property for themselves.

In 1658, Dominican Fathers built an estate at Fonds Saint-Jacques. From 1693 to 1705, this was the home of Père Labat, the French Dominican priest who improved the distillery. A colorful character, he was also an explorer, architect, engineer, and historian, and fought as a soldier against the English.

In 1664, Louis transferred the island, this time to the newly established Compagnie des Indes Occidentales. The next year, during the Second Anglo-Dutch War, a Dutch fleet under Admiral Michiel de Ruyter retired to Martinique to refit after the fleet’s indecisive encounter with an English force off Barbados. Two years later a hurricane devastated Martinique and Guadeloupe, killing some 2,000 people. This was the first of several natural disasters that would devastate the population of Martinique over the next few centuries.

In 1666 and 1667 the English unsuccessfully attacked. The Treaty of Breda in 1667 ended the Second Anglo-Dutch War and hence the hostilities.

 Covens & Mortier’s 1742 map of the French colony of Martinique in the West Indies. Depicts the Island of Martinique divided into three sections, two in the south and one in the north. Includes both political and topographical information. Beautifully hand colored. Based upon the work of Guillaume DE L'ISLE (1675-1726) and Phillippe BUACHE (1700-1773). Prepared for the 1742 issue of Covens and Mortier’s Atlas Nouveau .
Covens & Mortier’s 1742 map of the French colony of Martinique in the West Indies. Depicts the Island of Martinique divided into three sections, two in the south and one in the north. Includes both political and topographical information. Beautifully hand colored. Based upon the work of Guillaume DE L’ISLE (1675-1726) and Phillippe BUACHE (1700-1773). Prepared for the 1742 issue of Covens and Mortier’s Atlas Nouveau .

In 1672, Louis XIV ordered the construction of a citadel, Fort Saint Louis, at Fort Royal Bay to defend Martinique. The next year, the Compagnie des Indes Occidentales decided to establish a town at Fort Royal, even though the location was a malarial swamp. The Compagnie des Indes Occidentales failed in 1674, and the colony reverted to the direct administration of the French crown. Martinique’s administration was in the hands of council. The King appointed two members: the Lieutenant-general and the administrator. They chose the other council members (the governor, the Attorney General and the ordinary judge). This organization lasted until 1685.

During the Third Anglo-Dutch War, de Ruyter returned to Martinique in 1674, this time with the intent to capture Fort Royal. Calm winds and French booms prevented him from sailing his fleet of 30 warships, nine supply ships, and 15 transports into the harbor. The French repulsed his attempt to land his 3,400 troops, causing him to lose 143 men, at a cost of 15 French lives.

In 1675, the first Governor General of the West Indies, Jean-Charles de Baas-Castelmore, arrived in Martinique and served until 1677. His successor was Charles de La Roche-Courbon, comte de Blénac, who served for the first time from 1677 to 1683. He drew up a plan for the city of Fort Royal and improving the fortifications of Fort Saint Louis. de Blénac was responsible for the ten-year effort that resulted in the building of a 487-meter wall around the peninsula on which the Fort stood, the wall being four meters high and two meters thick, and cutting a ditch that separated from the town. de Blénac served as Governor General again from June 1684 to February 1691, and again from November 24, 1691, until his death in 1696.

The growth of the town resulted in the progressive clearing and draining of the mangrove swamp. By 1681, Fort-Royal was the administrative, military and political capital of Martinique. Still, Saint Pierre, with its better harbor, remained the commercial capital.

In 1685, in France King Louis XIV promulgated the Code Noir (literally, Black Code), a collection of law texts whose 60 articles would regulate slavery in the colonies, and which was partially inspired by Jean-Baptiste Colbert. The code forbade some cruel acts, but institutionalized others and slavery itself, relegating the status of slaves to that of chattel. It also ordered the expulsion of the Jews from all the French islands. These Jews then moved to the Dutch island of Curaçao, where they prospered.

Although edicts from King Louis XIV’s court regularly came to the islands to suppress the Protestant “heretics”, these were mostly ignored by island authorities until Louis XIV’s Edict of Revocation in 1685.

From September 1686 to early 1688, the French crown used Martinique as a threat and a dumping ground for mainland Huguenots who refused to reconvert to Catholicism. Over 1,000 Huguenots were transported to Martinique during this period, usually under miserable and crowded ship conditions that caused many of them to die en route. Those that survived the trip were distributed to the island planters as Engagés (Indentured servants) under the system of serf peonage that prevailed in the French Antilles at the time.

By 1688, nearly all of Martinique’s French Protestant population had escaped to the British American colonies or Protestant countries back home. The policy decimated the population of Martinique and the rest of the French Antilles and set back their colonization by decades, causing the French king to relax his policies in the islands yet leaving the islands susceptible to British occupation over the next century.

In 1692, Charles de La Roche-Courbon, Count of Blénac, the Governor and Lieutenant General of the French colonies in America, named Fort Royal as the capital city of Martinique.

In 1693, the English again unsuccessfully attacked Martinique.

In 1720, a French naval officer, Gabriel de Clieu, procured a coffee plant seedling from the Royal Botanical Gardens in Paris and transported it to Martinique. He transplanted it on the slopes of Mount Pelée and was able to harvest his first crop in 1726, or shortly thereafter. By 1736, the number of slaves in Martinique had risen to 60,000 people. In 1750, Saint Pierre had about 15,000 inhabitants, and Fort Royal only about 4,000.

“Vue du Fort Royal de la Martinique prise de la première embrasure de la Batterie de la Prison du côté du petit escalier qui monte au fort.” (François Denis, circa 1750)

Britain captured Martinique during the Seven Years’ War, holding it from 1762 to 1763. Following Britain’s victory in the war there was a strong possibility the island would be annexed by them. However, the sugar trade made the island so valuable to the royal French government that at the Treaty of Paris (1763), which ended the Seven Years’ War, they gave up all of Canada in order to regain Martinique as well as the neighboring island of Guadeloupe. During the British occupation, Marie Josèph Rose Tascher de la Pagerie, the future Empress Joséphine was born to a noble family living on Les Trois-Îlets across the bay from Fort Royal. Also, 1762 saw a yellow fever epidemic and in 1763 the French established separate governments for Martinique and Guadeloupe.

August 2, 1766, saw the birth of Saint-Pierre de Louis Delgrès, a mixed-race free black who would serve in the French army and fight the British in 1794, before becoming the leader of the unsuccessful resistance in Guadeloupe against General Richepance, whom Napoleon had sent to restore slavery to that colony. On August 13 (in either 1766 or 1767) a hurricane — apparently accompanied by an earthquake — struck the island; 600-1600 were killed. Monsieur de la Pagerie, the father of the future Empress, was almost ruined. At the time, there were some 450 sugar mills in Martinique, and molasses was a major export. Four years later, an earthquake shook the island. By 1774, when a decree ended indentured servitude for whites, there were some 18 to 19 million coffee trees on the island. In 1776, one of the most damaging hurricanes in Western history struck the island, killing 6000. Over 100 French and Dutch merchantmen were lost.

In 1779, the future Joséphine de Beauharnais, first Empress of the French, sailed for France to meet her husband for the first time. In 1782, Admiral de Grasse sailed from Martinique to rendezvous with Spanish forces in order to attack Jamaica. The subsequent battle of the Saintes resulted in a massive defeat for the French at the hands of the Royal Navy.

Rigobert Bonne and Guilleme Raynal’s 1780 map of the Island of Martinique. Highly detailed, showing towns, rivers, some topographical features, political boundaries and important ports. Mountains shown in profile. Drawn by R. Bonne for G. Raynal’s Atlas de Toutes les Parties Connues du Globe Terrestre, Dressé pour l'Histoire Philosophique et Politique des Établissemens et du Commerce des Européens dans les Deux Indes .
Rigobert Bonne and Guilleme Raynal’s 1780 map of the Island of Martinique. Highly detailed, showing towns, rivers, some topographical features, political boundaries and important ports. Mountains shown in profile. Drawn by R. Bonne for G. Raynal’s Atlas de Toutes les Parties Connues du Globe Terrestre, Dressé pour l’Histoire Philosophique et Politique des Établissemens et du Commerce des Européens dans les Deux Indes .

The French Revolution in 1789 also affected Trinidad when Martiniquan planters and their slaves emigrated there and started to grow sugar and cocoa. Médéric Louis Élie Moreau de Saint-Méry, the deputy to the National Constituent Assembly for Martinique opposed representation for Free people of color. On April 4, 1792, the French Legislative Assembly extended citizenship to all men of color. Donatien-Marie-Joseph de Vimeur, vicomte de Rochambeau was sent to Martinique to apply this law. The Constituent Assembly of Martinique agreed to promulgate this law. However, they refused to allow Rochambeau to disembark with his troops.

In 1793, there was a small, unsuccessful slave rebellion in Saint Pierre. The French executed six of the ringleaders. On February 4, 1793, Louis-Francois Dubuc signed an accord in Whitehall, London, putting Martinique under British jurisdiction until the French Monarchy could be re-established. In doing so, he forestalled the spread of the French Revolution to Martinique by giving the English an excuse to intervene. Notably, the accord guaranteed the continuation of slavery.

In 1794, the French Convention abolished slavery. However, before this decree could get to Martinique and be implemented, the British attacked the island and captured it. A British force under Admiral Sir John Jervis and Lieutenant General Sir Charles Grey captured Fort Royal and Fort Saint Louis on March 22 and Fort Bourbon two days later. At that point all resistance ceased. On March 30, 1794, the British occupation reinstated the Old Regime, including the Monarchy’s Supreme Council and the seneschal’s courts of Trinité, Le Marin, and St Pierre. The Royalists regained possession of their properties and positions, slaves were returned to their masters, and emancipation was forbidden. The government also promulgated an ordinance banning all gatherings of blacks or meetings by slaves, and banned Carnival. However, the British did require an oath of allegiance to the King of England.

Six years later, in 1800, Jean Kina, an ex-slave from Dominica and aide-de-camp to a British officer, fled to Morne Lemaître and called on free blacks and slaves to join him in a rebellion in support of the rights of the free blacks. A number did so, leading Kina to occupy his position for over a year. When he marched on Fort-Royal though, a British force took over the position and negotiated his surrender in return for amnesty. The British transported Kina to England, where they held him in Newgate Prison.

In 1802, the British returned the island to the French with the Treaty of Amiens. When France regained control of Martinique, Napoléon Bonaparte reinstated slavery. Two years later, he married Martiniquan Joséphine de Beauharnais and crowned her Empress of France.

During the Napoleonic Wars, in 1804 the British established a fort at Diamond Rock, outside Fort de France, and garrisoned it with some 120 sailors and five cannons. The Royal Navy commissioned the fort HMS Diamond Rock and from there were able for 17 months to harass vessels coming into the port. The French eventually sent a fleet of sixteen vessels that retook the island after a fierce bombardment.

The British again captured Martinique in 1809, and held it until 1814. In 1813, a hurricane killed 3,000 people in Martinique. During Napoleon’s 100 Days in 1815, he abolished the slave trade. At the same time the British briefly re-occupied Martinique. A slave insurrection in 1822 resulted in two dead and seven injured. The government condemned 19 slaves to death, 10 to the galleys, six to whipping, and eight to helping with the executions. The British, who had abolished the slave trade in their empire in 1807, forced Napoleon’s successor, Louis XVIII to retain the proscription, though it did not become truly effective until 1831.

A beautiful French nautical chart or map of Martinique issued in 1831 by the Depot de la Marine. Offers sumptuous detail both inland at sea. There are countess depth soundings as well as notes on undersea features such as banks and shoals. Equally impressive detail inland with beautifully engraved topography throughout. Today Martinique, with its French Caribbean culture, lush rainforests, and stunning beaches is considered a jewel of the Caribbean. Issued by M. Monnier and M. Le Bourguignon-Duperre for the Depot-general de la Marine in 1831.
A beautiful French nautical chart or map of Martinique issued in 1831 by the Depot de la Marine. Offers sumptuous detail both inland at sea. There are countess depth soundings as well as notes on undersea features such as banks and shoals. Equally impressive detail inland with beautifully engraved topography throughout. Today Martinique, with its French Caribbean culture, lush rainforests, and stunning beaches is considered a jewel of the Caribbean. Issued by M. Monnier and M. Le Bourguignon-Duperre for the Depot-general de la Marine in 1831.

In 1839, an earthquake believed to have measured 6.5 on the Richter magnitude scale killed some 400 to 700 people, caused severe damage in Saint Pierre, and almost totally destroyed Fort Royal. Fort Royal was rebuilt in wood, reducing the risk from earthquakes, but increasing the risk from fire. That same year, there were 495 sugar producers in Martinique, who produced some 25,900 tons of “white gold”.

In February 1848, François Auguste Perrinon became head of the Committee of Colonists of Martinique. He was a member of the Commission for the abolition of slavery, led by Victor Schoelcher. On April 27, Schoelcher obtained a decree abolishing slavery in the French Empire. Perrinon was appointed Commissioner General of Martinique, and charged with the task of abolishing slavery there. However, he and the decree did not arrive in Martinique until June 3, by which time Governor Claude Rostoland had already abolished slavery. The imprisonment of a slave at Le Prêcheur had led to a slave revolt on May 20; two days later Rostoland, under duress, had abolished slavery on the island to quell the revolt. That same year, following the establishment of the Second Republic, Fort Royal became Fort-de-France. In 1981, May 22 was declared a national holiday in celebration of emancipation.

In 1851, a law was passed authorizing the creation of two colonial banks with the authority to issue banknotes. This led to the founding of the Bank of Martinique in Saint Pierre, and the Bank of Guadeloupe. These banks would merge in 1967 to form the present-day Banque des Antilles Française.

The first stamps used in Martinique were the general issues of France starting in 1851. Prior to that, posts had set up as early as March 4, 1766, with four main offices Saint Pierre, Fort-de-France, La Trinite and Le Mann. The first handstamp was used in 1816 and datestamps from 1832. A British post office had been in operation between 1809 and 1815. General issue stamps released for the French colonies were in use starting in 1859, obliterated MQE in a lozenge of dots.

Indentured laborers from India started to arrive in Martinique in 1853. Plantation owners recruited the Indians to replace the slaves, who once free, had fled the plantations. This led to the creation of the small but continuing Indian community in Martinique. This immigration repeated on a smaller scale the importation of Indians to such British colonies as British Guiana and Trinidad and Tobago following the abolition of slavery in the British Empire in 1833. Towards the end of the century, one thousand Chinese also came as earlier they had come to Cuba.

The city government in 1857-58 cleared and filled the flood channel encircling Fort de France. The channel had become an open sewer and hence a health hazard. The filled-in channel, La Levee, marked the northern boundary of the city.

Martinique got its second enduring financial institution in 1863 when the Crédit Foncier Colonial opened its doors in Saint Pierre. Its objective was to make long-term loans for the construction or modernization of sugar factories. It replaced the Crédit Colonial, which had been established in 1860, but seems hardly to have gotten going.

In 1868, construction work on the Radoub Basin port facilities at Fort de France finally was completed. The improvements to the port would enable Fort de France better to compete in trade and commerce with Saint Pierre.

In 1870, rising racial tensions led to the short-lived insurrection in southern Martinique and proclamation in Fort-de-France of a Martiniquan Republic. The insurrection started with an altercation between a local béké (white) and a black tradesman. A crowd lynched the béké and during the insurrection many sugar factories were torched. The authorities restored order by temporarily imprisoning some 500 rebels in Martinique’s forts. Seventy-four were tried and found guilty, and the twelve principal leaders were shot to death. The authorities deported the rest to French Guiana or New Caledonia.

By this time sugar cane fields covered some 57% of Martinique’s arable land. Unfortunately, falling prices for sugar forced many small sugar works to merge. Producers turned to rum production in an attempt to improve their fortunes.

When France established the Third Republic in 1871, the colonies, Martinique among them, gained representation in the National Assembly.

The first stamps of Martinique were issued on July 18, 1886, by overprinting and surcharging French Colonies general issues. This continued until 1892, including surcharges on postage due stamps (Scott #1-32). Specifically inscribed stamps for Martinique were the Navigation and Commerce key-plate issues starting in 1892 and continuing until 1906 with a few surcharges released in 1904 (Scott #33-61). These were followed by the island’s first pictorial issue, nearly 40 stamps of different denominations but using only three designs released between 1908 and 1930 (Scott #62-100).

In 1887, after visiting Panama, Paul Gauguin spent some months with his friend Charles Laval, also a painter, in a cabin some two kilometers south of Saint Pierre. During this period, Gauguin produced several paintings featuring Martinique. There is now a small Gauguin museum in Le Carbet that has reproductions of his Martinique paintings. That same year, Harper’s Weekly sent the author and translator Lafcadio Hearn to Martinique for a short visit; he ended up staying for two years. After his return to the United States, he would publish two books, one an account of his daily life in Martinique and the other the story of a slave.

By 1888, the population of Martinique had risen from about 163,000 people a decade earlier to 176,000. At the same time, natural disasters continued to plague the island. Much of Fort de France was devastated by a fire in 1890, and then the next year a hurricane killed some 400 people.

In the 1880s, the Paris architect Pierre-Henri Picq built the Schoelcher Library, an iron and glass structure that was exhibited in the Tuileries Gardens during the 1889 Paris Exposition Universelle, on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the French Revolution. After the Exposition the building was shipped to Fort de France and reassembled there, the work being completed by 1893. Initially, the library contained the 10,000 books that Victor Schoelcher had donated to the island. Today it houses over 250,000 and stands as a tribute to the man who led the movement to abolish slavery in Martinique. In 1895, Picq also built the Saint-Louis Cathedral in Fort-de-France.

In 1900, a strike at a sugar factory owned by a Frenchman led to the police shooting dead ten agricultural workers.

Before the total destruction of Saint-Pierre in 1902 by a volcanic eruption, it was the most important city of Martinique culturally and economically, being known as
Before the total destruction of Saint-Pierre in 1902 by a volcanic eruption, Saint-Pierre was the most important city of Martinique culturally and economically, being known as “the Paris of the Caribbean”. Photo taken June 15, 2005.

On May 8, 1902, a blast from the volcano Mont Pelée destroyed the town of Saint-Pierre, killing almost all of its 29,000 inhabitants. The only survivors were a shoemaker and a prisoner who was saved by his position in a jail dungeon with only a single window. Because Saint-Pierre was the commercial capital of the island, there were four banks in the city — the Banque de la Martinique, Banque Transatlantique, a branch of the Colonial Bank of London, and the Crédit Foncier Colonial. All were destroyed. The town had to be completely rebuilt and lost its status as the commercial capital, a title which shifted to Fort-de-France. Due to the eruption, refugees from Martinique arrived in boats in the southern villages of Dominica and some remained permanently on the island.

A hurricane in 1903 killed 31 people and damaged the sugar crop. A strong earthquake off Saint Lucia in 1906 caused further damage in Martinique, but mercifully no deaths. As construction began on the Panama Canal, more than 5,000 Martiniquans left to work on the project.

Resettlement of Saint-Pierre began in 1908. Even so, two years later the City of Saint Pierre was removed from the map of France with jurisdiction over the ruins transferring to Le Carbet. Elsewhere, political opponents assassinated the mayor of Fort de France, Antoine Seger, in 1908.

With war against Germany looming, in 1913 France enacted compulsory military service in the colony, and called on Martinique to send 1,100 men per year to France for training. When World War I finally came, 18,000 Martiniquans took part, of whom 1,306 died. During the war, the French government requisitioned Martinique’s rum production for the use of the French Army. Production doubled as sugar mills converted to distilleries, helping the recovery of the local economy.

In 1923, Saint Pierre was reestablished as a municipality. Two years later, in Fort de France, the municipal council approved the Mayor’s proposal to redevelop the slum district of Terres Sainvilles as a “workers city”. The council would sell the new housing to the residents for 40 semi-annual interest-free payments.

With the collapse of the world market for sugar in 1921-1922, cultivators sought a new crop. In 1928 they introduced bananas.

Mont Pelée became active in 1929, forcing the temporary evacuation of Saint Pierre. The Volcanological Observatory there did not get its first seismometer until some three years later.

In 1931, the Martiniquan Aimé Césaire moved to Paris to attend the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, the École Normale Supérieure, and finally the Sorbonne. While in Paris, Césaire met Léopold Senghor, then a poet but later Senegal’s first President. Césaire, Senghor, and Léon Damas, with whom Césaire had gone to school in Martinique at the Lycée Schoelcher, together formulated the concept of négritude, defined as an affirmation of pride in being black, and promoted it as a movement.

In 1933, André Aliker, the editor of Justice, the Communist newspaper, documented that a M. Aubéry, the wealthy, white owner of the Lareinty Company, had bribed the judges of the Court of Appeal to dismiss charges of tax fraud against him. That same year, Félix Eboué became the Acting Governor of the island, and an American, Frank Perret, established Le Musée Volcanologique at Saint Pierre.

In 1934, unknown persons kidnapped and murdered André Aliker; his body washed up on the beach with his arms tied behind him. Aimé Césaire, Senghor, Damas, and others, founded L’Etudiant, a Black student review.

In 1939, the French cruiser Jeanne d’Arc arrived late in the year with Admiral Georges Robert, High Commissioner of the Republic to the Antilles and Guiana. Aimé Césaire returned to Martinique. He became a teacher at the Lycee Schoelcher in Fort de France, where his students included Frantz Fanon and Édouard Glissant.

Until mid-1943, Martinique was officially pro-Vichy, with the United States and Great Britain seeking to limit any effect of that stance on the war. The U.S. did prepare plans for an invasion by an expeditionary force to capture the island, and at various times the U.S. and Britain established blockades. For instance, from July to November 1940, the British cruisers HMS Fiji and HMS Dunedin maintained a watch to ensure that the French aircraft carrier Béarn and the other French naval vessels in Martinique did not slip away to Europe.

Between 1941 and 1944, the Vichy government issued 19 stamps for Martinique in France. Since these were never placed on sale on the island, the Scott catalogue only lists unused values (Scott #188-189E, B8-B10B, CB1-CB3, and J36A-J36D).

In June 1940, the French cruiser Émile Bertin arrived in Martinique with 286 tons of gold from the Bank of France. The original intent was that Bank’s gold reserve go to Canada for safekeeping, and a first shipment did go there. When France signed an armistice with Germany, plans changed and the second shipment was rerouted to Martinique. When it arrived in Martinique, Admiral Robert arranged for the storage of the gold in Fort Desaix. Émile Bertin then stayed at Fort de France until Martinique declared for Charles de Gaulle and the Free French forces. Essentially, in late 1941, Admiral Robert agreed to keep the French naval vessels immobilized, in return for the Allies not bombarding and invading the French Antilles.

In mid-1943, Admiral Robert returned to France via Puerto Rico and Lisbon, and Free French sympathizers took control of the gold at Fort Desaix and the French fleet.

In 1944, the American film director Howard Hawks directed Humphrey Bogart, Lauren Bacall, Hoagy Carmichael and Walter Brennan in the film To Have and Have Not. Hawks more-or-less based the film on a novel that Ernest Hemingway had written in 1937. The essence of the plot is the conversion from neutrality to the Free French side of an American fishing boat captain operating out of Vichy-controlled Fort de France in 1940.

In 1945, Aimé Césaire succeeded in getting elected Mayor of Fort de France and Deputy from Martinique to the French National Assembly as a member of the Communist Party. Césaire remained mayor for 56 years. However, the Communist suppression of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 disillusioned him, causing him to quit the Communist Party. As a member of the Assembly, he was one of the principal drafters of the 1946 law on departmentalizing former colonies, a role for which politicians favoring independence have often criticized him.

In 1947, the High Court of Justice in Versailles tried Admiral Robert for collaboration. He received a sentence of 100 years at hard labor and national degradation for life. The Court released him from the hard labor after six months, and he received a pardon in 1957.

In 1946, the French National Assembly voted unanimously to transform Martinique from a colony of France into a department, known in French as a Département d’outre-mer or DOM. Along with its fellow DOMs of Guadeloupe, Réunion, and French Guiana, Martinique was intended to be legally identical to any department in the metropole. However, in reality, several key differences remained, particularly within social security payments and unemployment benefits.

French funding to the DOM has somewhat made up for the social and economic devastation of the slave trade and sugar crop monoculture. With French funding to Martinique, the island had one of the highest standards of living in the Caribbean. However, it remained dependent upon French aid, as when measured by what Martinique actually produced, it was one of the poorer islands in the region. In 2009, the French Caribbean general strikes exposed deep ethnic, and class tensions and disparities within Martinique.

Scott #67 was released in 1908, utilizing one of three designs in a pictorial set that would continue to be added to until 1930, eventually totaling 39 different major numbers (Scott #62-100). All of the stamps in the lower denominations — 1 centime to 20 centimes — featured a Martiniquan woman (Scott #62-73); the 25-centime to 90-centime values portrayed a girl in a cane field carrying pineapple in a basket on her head (Scott #74-93) while the highest denominations — 1 franc to 5 francs — showed a view of Fort de France (Scott #94-100).  These stamps were bicolored, and printed by typography. A number of these were also surcharged (Scott #105-120 and Scott #B1).

The 10-centime stamp was originally released in this carmine and brown color combination. Reissues occurred in 1922 — blue green and green — and 1925 — brown violet and rose — listed by Scott as #68 and #69.  The catalogue doesn’t give the exact ethnicity of the woman portrayed. The population of Martinique is mainly of Africans generally mixed with some French, Amerindian (Carib), Indo-Martiniquais (of Tamil origin), Lebanese or Chinese ancestry. Martinique also has a small Syro-Lebanese community, a small but increasing Chinese community, and the Béké community, descendants of European ethnic groups of the first French and Spanish settlers, who still dominate parts of the agricultural and trade sectors of the economy. The Béké population (which totals around 1% of Martinique’s population, most of them being of aristocratic origin by birth or after buying the title) generally live in mansions on the Atlantic coast of the island (mostly in the François – Cap Est district).

Whites in total represent 5% of the population. In addition to the island population, the island hosts a metropolitan French community, most of which lives on the island on a temporary basis (generally from 3 to 5 years).

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