Württemberg #O99 (1881)

Wurttemberg - Scott #O99 (1881)
Wurttemberg – Scott #O99 (1881)

The Kingdom of Württemberg (Königreich Württemberg) was a German state that existed from 1805 to 1918, located within the area that is now Baden-Württemberg. The kingdom was a continuation of the Duchy of Württemberg, which existed from 1495 to 1805. Prior to 1495, Württemberg was a County in the former Duchy of Swabia, which had dissolved after the death of Duke Conradin in 1268.

The borders of the Kingdom of Württemberg, as defined in 1813, lay between 47°34′ and 49°35′ north and 8°15′ and 10°30′ east. The greatest distance north to south comprised 140 miles (225 kilometers) and the greatest east to west was 99 miles 160 km). The border had a total length of 1,100 miles (1,800 km) and the total area of the state was 7,532 square miles (19,508 km²).

The kingdom had borders with Bavaria on the east and south, with Baden in the north, west and south. The southern part surrounded the Prussian province of Hohenzollern on most of its sides and touched on Lake Constance.

Frederick II of the Duke of Württemberg assumed the title of King Frederick I on January 1, 1806. He abrogated the constitution, and united Old and New Württemberg. Subsequently, he placed the property of the church under government control, and greatly extended the borders of the kingdom by the process of mediatization.

In 1806, Frederick joined the Confederation of the Rhine and received further territory with 160,000 inhabitants. Later, by the Peace of Vienna of October 1809, about 110,000 more people came under his rule. In return for these favors, Frederick joined French Emperor Napoleon in his campaigns against Prussia, Austria and Russia. Of the 16,000 of his subjects who marched to Moscow, only a few hundred returned. After the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, Frederick deserted the French emperor and, by a treaty with Metternich at Fulda in November 1813, he secured the confirmation of his royal title and of his recent acquisitions of territory. Meanwhile his troops marched into France with the allies. In 1815, the King joined the German Confederation but the Congress of Vienna made no change to the extent of his lands. In the same year, he laid before the representatives of his people the outline of a new constitution but they rejected it and, in the midst of the commotion that ensued, Frederick died on October 30, 1816.

Frederick was succeeded by his son, William I who, after much discussion, granted a new constitution in September 1819. This constitution (with subsequent modifications) remained in force until 1918. The desire for greater political freedom did not entirely fade under the constitution of 1819 and, after 1830, some transitory unrest occurred.

A period of quiet set in and the condition of the kingdom, its education, its agriculture, its trade and economy improved. Both in public and in private matters, William’s frugality helped to repair the country’s shattered finances. The inclusion of Württemberg in the German Zollverein and the construction of railways fostered trade.

The revolutionary movement of 1848 did not leave Württemberg untouched, although no violence took place in the territory. William had to dismiss Johannes Schlayer and his other ministers, and appoint men with more liberal ideas, proponents of a united Germany. William proclaimed a democratic constitution but, as soon as the movement had spent its force, he dismissed the liberal ministers and, in October 1849, Schlayer and his associates returned to power. In 1851, by interfering with popular electoral rights, the King and his ministers succeeded in assembling a servile diet that surrendered the privileges gained since 1848. In this way the authorities restored the constitution of 1819 and power passed into bureaucratic hands. A concordat with the papacy proved almost the last act of William’s long reign, but the diet repudiated the agreement.

In July 1864, Charles I succeeded his father William as king and almost at once had to face considerable difficulties. In the competition between Austria and Prussia for supremacy in Germany, William had consistently taken the Austrian side and the new king continued this policy. In 1866, Württemberg took up arms on behalf of Austria in the Austro-Prussian War but, three weeks after the Battle of Königgrätz on July 3, 1866, the allies suffered a comprehensive defeat at the Battle of Tauberbischofsheim. The Prussians occupied northern Württemberg and negotiated a peace in August 1866. Württemberg paid an indemnity of 8,000,000 gulden, and concluded a secret offensive and defensive treaty with her conqueror. Württemberg was a party to the St Petersburg Declaration of 1868.

The end of the struggle against Prussia allowed a renewal of democratic agitation in Württemberg, but this had achieved no tangible results when the war broke out in 1870. Although Württemberg had continued to be antagonistic to Prussia, the kingdom shared in the national enthusiasm which swept over Germany. Württemberger troops played a creditable part in the Battle of Wörthand in other operations of the war.

In 1871, Württemberg became a member of the new German Empire but retained control of her own post office, telegraphs and railways. She also had certain special privileges with regard to taxation and the army. For the next ten years, Württemberg enthusiastically supported the new order. Many important reforms ensued, especially in the area of finance, but a proposal to unify the railway system with that of the rest of Germany failed. After reductions in taxation in 1889, changes to the constitution were considered. Charles wished to strengthen the conservative element in the chambers but the laws of 1874, 1876 and 1879 effected only slight change.

When King Charles died suddenly on October 6, 1891, he was succeeded by his nephew, William II, who continued Charles’ policies.

Constitutional discussions continued and the election of 1895 returned a powerful party of democrats. William had no sons, nor had his only Protestant kinsman, Duke Nicholas. Consequently, power was due to pass to a Roman Catholic branch of the family, raising difficulties concerning the relations between church and state. As of 1910, the heir to the throne was Duke Albert of the Altshausen family.

An older Catholic line, that of the Duke of Urach, was bypassed due to a morganatic marriage contracted in 1800. A protestant morganatic line included Mary of Teck, who married George V of the United Kingdom.

Between 1900 and 1910 the political history of Württemberg centered around constitutional and educational questions. The constitution was revised in 1906 and the education system was improved in 1909. In 1904 the Württemberg railway system integrated with that of the rest of Germany.

King William abdicated on November 30, 1918, following German’s defeat in the First World War. The kingdom was replaced with the Free People’s State of Württemberg. After World War II, Württemberg was divided between the American and French occupation zones and became part of two new states; Württemberg-Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern. These two states merged with South Baden in 1952 to become the modern German state of Baden-Württemberg within the Federal Republic of Germany.

From an early period the postal service of Württemberg was, with some interruptions, in the hands of the princely House of Thurn and Taxis, but by an agreement dated March 22, 1851, the Government of Württemberg liberated itself by purchasing the postal privileges from July 1 of that year for the sum of 1,300,000 florins (about $525,000 — about $11 million in today’s money). It then proceeded to form its own administration and to join the German-Austrian Postal Union, established by the convention of April 6th 1850. As one of the provisions of this convention required the adoption of postage stamps, preparations were immediately made for providing them.

By a notice of October 7, 1851, the public were informed that stamps of 1, 3, 6 and 9 kreuzer would be on sale at the various post offices on October 12 and that their use would commence from October 15. In design these stamps are very similar to those of Baden, issued a few months earlier. All values were printed in black on colored papers, the design, common to all, mainly featuring large numerals to denote the respective denominations.

In April 1852, a new denomination of 18 kreuzer was added to the set and as the design is similar to that of the lower values, all can best be treated as one set. According to W A S Westoby:

The resemblance between the stamps of the first series of Württemberg and those of the first series of Baden is so remarkable as to leave no doubt that the Government of Württemberg availed itself of the results of the investigations made by that of Baden previously to the issue of the first series for this latter State, on May 1st 1851. The dies were similarly constructed, the inscriptions were similar, mutatis mutandis, and the stamps were printed on coloured paper. The matrix die was composite, the numeral of value in the centre being within a frame, almost square, of 9½ mm. placed angle upwards within a frame measuring externally 22½ by 22 mm. and internally 15½ by 15 mm. and carrying the following inscriptions on tablets: In the upper one, running the whole width was ‘Württemberg’, and on a similar tablet at the foot was ‘Freimarke’ with an ornament at each end resembling a vine branch with the two bunches of grapes, the lower one of which was incomplete. On the tablet on the left side was ‘Deutsch-Oestr. Postverein’, and on another on the right side ‘Vertrag v. 6 April 1850’. These were set up in movable type, the upper and lower ones in ordinary German lower case characters with capital initials, and those on the sides in diamond type, as in those of Baden. The spaces between the rectangle carrying the numeral of value and the inner line of the frame were filled in with arabesque ornaments.

The design is similar for all values with the exception of the central portion carrying the numerals. In the case of the 1 and 6 kreuzer the background is composed of lines running parallel to the sides of the rectangle making a design of small squares; in the 3 kreuzer, the ground consists of small ovals; in the 9 kreuzer the ground is composed of small circles resembling lace work; while on the 18 kreuzer the background is formed of horizontal lines.

The dies were engraved at the Mint in Stuttgart, where the electrotypes composing the printing plates were also made. The printing was done under the direction of the post office, in typographic presses, the sheets consisting of sixty stamps arranged in ten rows of six. All denominations were printed in black on colored papers. The paper was obtained locally and while it is always wove, it varies considerably in thickness and most values provide numerous shades. The stamps were all issued imperforate.

In December 1856, the numeral design was replaced with new stamps portraying the Arms of the kingdom. The values were the same as before with an 18kr stamp in addition and all were printed in color on white paper, the paper containing orange colored silk threads like the ‘Dickinson’ paper employed in Great Britain. The new design shows the Arms of the Kingdom, with supporters and motto, embossed in colorless relief on a ground work of color covered with white horizontal loops. This is contained within a rectangular frame, measuring 22½ mm. square, which is inscribed FREIMARKE at the top and with the value on each of the other three sides. The inscriptions are all in Roman capitals and the design is completed by the addition of small six-rayed stars in each of the angles.

The design is the same for all denominations, varying only in the designation of value. The dies were engraved and the electrotypes made at the Mint in Stuttgart. The printing form for each value consisted of sixty electrotypes, arranged in ten rows of six, which were separated as a rule by a space of only ¾ mm. The paper varies considerably in thickness and that at first employed contains orange colored silk threads similar to the ‘Dickinson’ paper, found in connection with some of the early British stamps. These silk threads were so placed that they traversed the stamps in a horizontal direction, one thread being apportioned to each horizontal row of stamps. This paper was apparently obtained from Bavaria. The values in this new series corresponded exactly to those previously in use, the set being issued on September 22, 1857.

If we accept the date of September 1857, as correct for the second issue the use of the silk-thread paper lasted but a very short time for in June 1858, the stamps began to appear on white-wove machine made paper, without threads. This paper is usually fairly thick but, like that of the preceding issue, it varies in texture. The sheets contained sixty stamps as before but the electrotypes were re-arranged so that the spaces between them varied from 1½ mm. to 1¼ mm.

The stamps of this issue are almost exactly like the corresponding stamps on the silk thread paper and variations in shade are of little consequence with the exception of the 1kr. This value exists in two very striking shades of brown one being yellowish and the other almost a black-brown.

In July 1859, a perforation machine was ordered from Vienna on the joint account of the postal administrations of Baden and Württemberg and this was set up at Carlsruhe. This machine was of the harrow type and was capable of perforating an entire sheet of 100 stamps at one operation, its gauge being 13½. Although the machine was primarily intended for use on sheets of 100 stamps those of Württemberg remained the same as before, i.e. sixty impressions in ten rows of six. Some of the perforated values began to be circulated in November 1859. The paper, color, and arrangement of the cliches remained as before.

The next change, though it affected all the values, was a somewhat minor one. It was found that the paper was a little too thick for easy working in the perforating machine and beginning with February 1861, a much thinner paper was employed. The 1kr of this series exists in a number of distinct shades ranging from a palish brown to an almost black-brown. The 3kr and 18kr differ in tint a little, while the 9kr is found in two colours. The original shade was rose, similar to that of the preceding issues, but early in 1862 the color was changed to a dull purple or claret.

Imperforate specimens are known of all values but it is considered doubtful that any were ever issued for use in this condition though postally used specimens are known.During the second quarter of 1862, it became necessary to overhaul the perforating machine and it was provided with a new set of punches having a gauge of ten, instead of 13½ as before. Stamps with the new perforation began to appear about June 1862, and all except the 18kr were issued by the end of the year. The 18kr in blue does not exist with the 10 perforation, as plenty of the 13½ perforation remained in stock and by the time more were required, the color was changed. The 9kr is known in carmine as well as the more usual purple. These were probably due to one or more imperforate sheets of the preceding issue, having been found and perforated after the gauge of the machine had been change.

The German-Austrian Postal Union had adopted a regulation under which all the members of the Union agreed to use the same colors for their 3, 6 and 9 kreuzer stamps. An order of the Minister of Finance of Württemberg , dated September 12, 1862, directed, therefore, that to conform with this regulation the stamps would for the future be printed in green for the 1 kreuzer, in rose for the 3 kreuzer, in blue for the 6 kreuzer, in brown for the 9 kreuzer, and in orange for the 18 kreuzer. The issue in the altered colors was to have taken place on October 1, 1862, but as there were large stocks of all values in the old colours still on hand it was decided to use these up first. Consequently, the new varieties appeared at various times as follows: the 1 kreuzer in February 1863, the 3 and 9 kreuzer in June 1863; and the 6 and 18 kreuzer in June 1864. The paper and perforation were as before. All values except the 18kr exist in a number of different shades.

With the increasing use of postage stamps the Württemberg Government found considerable inconvenience and delay was occasioned by having to send them to Carlsruhe to be perforated and this inconvenience became so great in time that the administration at Stuttgart ordered a machine from Berlin for rouletting the stamps in line, similar to the Prussian stamps of 1861. This machine was set up in August 1865 and the first stamps rouletted by it were delivered in October following though it was not until June 1866 that the issue of the 1, 3, and 6 kreuzer was made; and these were followed by the 9 kreuzer in March 1867; and by the 18 kreuzer in February 1868. The electrotypes all appear to have been re-set and the distance between the stamps is now 2 mm.

On November 23, 1867, an agreement was made with the North German Confederation by which the 2 silbergroschen rate was raised from 6 to 7 kreuzer. A new value, 7kr, also rouletted, was added to the series. The Württemberg public were informed of this change by means of a post-office notice dated April 2, 1868, and at the same time it was stated that 6, 9, and 18 kreuzer values would cease to be manufactured though they would continue available for postage purposes till the stocks were exhausted. The color chosen for the new value was blue though it was of a darker color than that used for the superseded 6kr denomination.

The typographic embossing method of production was found to be very expensive, especially in the case of the low denominations, and in 1868 the Government decided to abandon it in favor of ordinary typographic printing. That a considerable saving would be effected by the new method is conclusively shown from the statement that while it cost 1 kreuzer to produce 22 stamps by the embossed process, 46 stamps could be produced for the same sum by the plain typographic process. With the new process a new design was introduced. In this the main theme was a large numeral in the center, to denote the value, surrounded by suitable inscriptions and ornamentation.

On November 27, 1868, a Post Office circular was published giving notice that from January 1, 1869, stamps of a new design of 1, 3, and 7 kreuzer would be issued according as the stocks of the former series were exhausted. The actual date of issue of these values is not known. On May 3, 1869, another value of 14 kreuzer was issued in the same design, and on December 2, 1872, a 2 kreuzer value was added to the set.

Early in 1873 the rate for single letters sent to England France, or the United States by way of Bremen or Hamburg was fixed at 9 kreuzer and on January 15 a stamp of this value was issued corresponding in design to the other denominations then current. The design is the same for all six values and shows large uncolored shaded numerals in the center on a ground of crossed lines, within an upright oval with a band of oak leaves around the edge. Around this is an oval band of horizontal lines inscribed POST at the left, FREI at the top, and MARKE on the right, while there is a small posthorn at the bottom. The various inscriptions are separated by small ornamental scrolls. Surrounding this is another inscribed oval band containing, on an uncolored ground the name WURTTEMBERG at the top and the value in words at the base, the two inscriptions being separated by small crowns. In the spandrels are small shields containing three lions in the upper left and lower right corners and stag’s horns on the others. The die was engraved at Stuttgart, as in the case of the previous issues, the stamps being printed in sheets of sixty, in ten rows of six, on plain white wove paper. The printing was heavy, consequently the design is generally found deeply indented in the paper. The stamps were rouletted with the machine used for the preceding series.

On January 1, 1873, a stamp bearing the fiscal value of 70 kreuzer and in the Arms type of 1857 made its appearance. The object of this high denomination, as shown by a post office notice of December 24, 1872, was to prepay heavy letters. Its use was confined to the three chief post-offices of the kingdom situated at Stuttgart, Ulm, and Heilbron, and the stamp was not permitted to be sold to the public. Any letters requiring these high value stamps could be posted at other offices, when they were forwarded under official cover to one of the three above named offices, and then franked with the 70kr stamps.

The design of this value is exactly similar to that of the series of 1857, except that there is an exterior border formed of small dots. The stamps were printed in sheets of six, two horizontal rows of three, on white wove paper and were not perforated. In the top margin is an inscription in black referring to the price of each stamp and the total value of each sheet.

Two plates were used for printing these stamps differing chiefly in the arrangement of the dotted border. Whether both plates were used concurrently or at separate times is not known for certain.

Towards the end of 1874 the perforating by rouletting ceased as the Government purchased a new perforating machine having a gauge of 11½ by 11. The only value of the kreuzer series perforated by this machine was the 1 kr which was issued in November 1874. Before it was necessary to print further supplies of any of the other values the design was changed and though specimens are known with this perforation they are fraudulent productions.

In 1874, it was decided to change the currency, which up to that time had consisted of the florin of 60 kreuzer, similar to that of the other States of south Germany, to the Imperial currency of marks and pfennige, and January 1, 1875, was fixed as the date for the change. A notice, dated December 23, 1874, was issued by the Post-office, stating that a stamp of 20 pfennige of a new design would be issued on that day to take the place of that of the 7 kreuzer, just as soon as the stocks of the latter value held in the various post-offices were exhausted.

The design shows uncolored numerals on a circular ground of lines crossing each other diagonally, above which, on a curved scroll is K. WURTT. POST, while on a similar scroll below, the value is shown in words. On the left is a shield containing three stag’s horns and on the right are three lions in a similar shield. The whole is enclosed by an ornamental rectangular frame measuring 21 by 18½ mm.

The die was engraved and the printing plates were constructed at the Mint in Stuttgart and the printing was done under the direction of the Post Office as in the case of the preceding issues. As the new currency was a decimal one a change in the size of the plates was made and the stamps were printed in sheets of 100 arranged in ten rows of ten. They were perforated by the new machine gauging 11½ by 11.

On May 28, 1875, the Post Office issued another notice announcing that from July 1 next the former series of stamps in kreuzer would be entirely superseded by a new series with values in pfennige. These, it was stated, would be on sale at the various post offices on June 15 and that after August 15 the stamps with values in kreuzer would cease to be valid for postal use. The new denominations consisted of 3, 5, 10, 15, 25 and 50 pfennige all of similar type to the 20pf already described. At the same time the color of this latter value, which had hitherto been printed in blue, was changed to ultramarine.

About the same time a 2 marks stamp of similar type was issued in place of the 70 kreuzer. Its sale was prohibited to the public and its use was at first confined to the offices of Stuttgart, Ulm, and Heilbronn, though later it was extended to almost every post office in the Kingdom. Notwithstanding this prohibition the stamp was frequently sold to the public, as appears from a post-office circular of August 18, 1879, and in November of that year the stamp was printed in vermilion on orange colored paper and on the back ‘unverkauflich’ (not to be sold) was printed in ultramarine.

The 50pf was at first printed in grey but in February 1878, consequent on an agreement made with the Imperial Post Office at Berlin, its color was changed to grey-green. All values exist in a number of more or less striking shades and specialists will also find that most of them exist with yellow and white gum, the latter representing the later printings.

On November 1, 1881, a 5 mark stamp was issued and though this was chiefly intended for telegraphic purposes it was also available for postal use. The design was similar to that of the preceding series except that the central circular portion was uncolored, and the numeral of value was printed on it in black by a second operation.

On January 1, 1883, the 2 mark stamp was also issued with value in black on an uncolored ground. The value is known in two distinct shades and is also known imperforate, a sheet having been accidentally issued in this condition.

Early in the year 1890 the colors of the 3, 5, 25, and 50 pfennige values were changed to conform with those of the corresponding denominations of Germany, while in 1893 a new value, 2 pfennige, was issued. The design and perforation remained exactly as before. The 5pf is said to exist imperforate.

In 1900, the set was enriched by the addition of 30 and 40pf values. The design was exactly like that of the other values of the series, but, like the mark denominations, the numerals of value were printed at a second operation in black on a plain ground. These were the last stamps issued by Württemberg for general use for in 1902 its postal system was united with that of the Imperial government. A paragraph in Alfred Smith’s Monthly Circular referred to the matter as follows:-
“An agreement has been concluded between the Imperial Postal Administration and that of Württemberg by which the postal systems are to be united for a definite period of four years from April 1st 1902, after which it will be subject to a notice of one year on either side. On the date mentioned the separate issues of each country will give place to a unified series inscribed ‘DEUTSCHES REICH.'”

On April 1, 1902, the Kingdom of Württemberg ceased the issue of its own separate stamps, those for the German Empire superseding them. In addition to its stamps for ordinary use, the Kingdom also issued Municipal Service and Official stamps.

As Germany underwent violent revolution near the end of World War I, the Kingdom of Württemberg was transformed from a monarchy to a democratic republic without bloodshed; its borders and internal administration remained unchanged. King Wilhelm II abdicated on November 30, 1918. Following the introduction of its new constitution and the Weimar Constitution in 1919, Württemberg was re-established as a member state of the German Reich.

In comparison to the political turmoil that plagued Weimar Germany, political development in Württemberg was driven by continuity and stability. The three legislative periods of the Württemberg parliament from 1920 to 1932 each ran the full prescribed length of four years, unlike at the federal level. The social democrats lost their influence in Württemberg early in the state’s history, with conservative coalitions forming government from 1924 to 1933. Despite the many financial crises that affected Germany during the 1920s and 1930s, the economic development of Württemberg proceeded better than in many other German states and its capital – Stuttgart – became a regional center of finance and culture.

With the Nazi seizure of federal power in 1933 and the following elimination of all non-Nazi organizations (Gleichschaltung), Württemberg and all other German states were abolished, in spirit if not in law. It was merged briefly into the “gau” of Württemberg-Hohenzollern. After World War II, Württemberg was split between the US and French Allied Occupation Zones in Germany and became parts of two new states: Württemberg-Baden (run by the Americans) and a smaller Württemberg-Hohenzollern run by the French.

The French zone state of Wurttemberg-Hohenzollern was created in 1945. It consisted of the southern half of the former state of Wurttemberg and the Prussian administrative region of Hohenzollern. Its capital was Tubingen. The northern half of the former state of Wurttemberg became the American zone state of Wurttemberg-Baden. This division was set so that the Autobahn connecting Karlsruhe and Munich was completely contained within the American occupation zone.

Wurttemberg-Hohenzollern, notated as just WURTTEMBERG on its postage stamps, issued their first definitive postage stamps between June 1947 and February 1948. The stamps were photogravure and printed on unwatermarked papers of varying quality. The new definitive set featured six designs: Friedrich von Schiller, the Castle of Bebenhausen, Friedrich Holderlin, the Town Gate of Wangen, Lichtenstein Castle, and Zwiefalten Church. The first four designs were repeated in varying denominations and colors within the set.

Due to the post-war economic crisis in the German occupation zones, the Western Allies instituted currency reform during June 1948. The old Reichsmark currency was replaced by a new Deutsche Mark currency, and this would eventually become the official currency of the soon-to-be Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) until 2002, when it would be replaced by the Euro.

The 1947 stamp designs were re-issued between June and August of 1948 to coincide with the currency reform. The same 1947 designs were used, though the new stamps had changes in color and in some of the denominations. Two new designs were added to the 1948 set, with those being depictions of Waldsee and Ludwig Uhland.

Between November 1948 and July 1949, more definitive stamps were issued featuring some denomination and color changes. These new definitives do not have the denomination name, “Pf.” or “D.Pf.” on them.

All of the French zone stamps for the state of Württemberg-Hohenzollern that were issued during 1949 were either commemorative postage stamps or commemorative semi-postal (charity) stamps. A set of two stamps were issued on February 11, 1949, to publicize the 1948-1949 German Skiing Championships held at Isny im Allgau. The stamps, which were typographed on paper with a crosses and circles watermark, depict a view of Isny im Allgau and a skier and village.Four stamps and souvenir sheet were issued on February 25, 1949, to publicize the Red Cross, with the surtax going to the German Red Cross. Each of the stamps depicts the coat of arms of the French zone state of Wurttemberg-Hohenzollern with a red cross above it. The souvenir sheets were issued imperforate and without gum.

A set of three stamps was issued on August 12, 1949, to commemorate the 200th Anniversary of the birth of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. The three stamps depict various portraits of Goethe.

On September 3, 1949, a pair of stamps was issued on to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the Gustav Werner Foundation. Both stamps feature a portrait of Gustav Werner. The surtax was to aid the foundation. Gustav Albert Werner (1809-1887) was a Protestant pastor and the founder of the Bruderhaus (Brother House). The Brother House and later the Gustav Werner Foundation provided mentoring and educational opportunities to orphaned children. A similar organization in the United States is known as Big Brothers of America.

A set of two stamps in the image were issued on September 17 to commemorate the 100th anniversary of German postage stamps. The 10 pf. denomination depicts a mail coach of 1849 and the 20 pf. depicts an airplane and a mail bus pulling a trailer of 1949.

Two stamps were issued on October 4, 1949, to commemorate the 75th anniversary of the Universal Postal Union. Both stamps depict a posthorn and a World globe.

At the beginning of October 1949, the state of Wurttemberg-Hohenzollern joined the newly established Federal Republic of Germany, and their separate stamp issues were replaced by those of the new West German republic.

A poll was held in September 1950 in Wurttemberg-Hohenzollern, Wurttemberg-Baden, and Baden, regarding a merger of the three states. A public referendum was held on December 16, 1951, and on April 25, 1952, all three states were merged into the modern German state of Baden-Wurttemberg.

All of my Württemberg stamps are Officials. Official Württemberg stamps for use by the Communal Authorities were first issued in 1875. With the exception of a few stamps issued by Bavaria, for use by railway officials, Württemberg is the only German state that issued a regular series of official stamps.These communal or municipal official stamps were issued for use on official correspondence between municipal offices within the Kingdom.

Six stamps were issued between 1875 and 1900, printed on unwatermarked paper. In 1906, the 1875-1900 issues were overprinted to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the establishment of the Kingdom of Württemberg. Between 1906 and 1919, a new series of definitive official stamps was issued. All of these issues were printed on paper with a multiple circles and crosses watermark.

Before April 1881, franking on state government mail was free, but that privilege was taken away on April 1, 1881. A new series of official stamps was issued for use on state government correspondence at that time. These first state definitives were issued between 1881 and 1902, and they were all printed on unwatermarked paper. During this time there were color changes to some of the issues, and new denominations were added, as well.

Scott #O99 is the 10-pfennig rose value from this first set of State Authorities offical stamps, released in 1881, typographed on unwatermarked paper and perforated 11½ by 11.

The vast majority of used official stamps of Württemberg are “favor canceled”. Most of them are obvious, and they are worth about the same price as the “mint hinged” stamps in most of the specialized catalogs.

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