On January 19, 1809, author, editor and literary critic Edgar Allan Poe was born. Poe is best known for his poetry and short stories, particularly his tales of mystery and the macabre. He is widely regarded as a central figure of Romanticism in the United States and of American literature as a whole, and he was one of the country’s earliest practitioners of the short story. He is generally considered the inventor of the detective fiction genre and is further credited with contributing to the emerging genre of science fiction. He was the first well-known American writer to earn a living through writing alone, resulting in a financially difficult life and career.
Poe was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the second child of actors David and Elizabeth “Eliza” Arnold Hopkins Poe. His father abandoned the family in 1810, and his mother died the following year. Thus orphaned, the child was taken in by John and Frances Allan of Richmond, Virginia. They never formally adopted him, but he was with them well into young adulthood. Tension developed later as John Allan and Poe repeatedly clashed over debts, including those incurred by gambling, and the cost of Poe’s secondary education. He attended the University of Virginia but left after a year due to lack of money. Poe quarreled with Allan over the funds for his education and enlisted in the Army in 1827 under an assumed name. It was at this time that his publishing career began with the anonymous collection Tamerlane and Other Poems (1827), credited only to “a Bostonian”. Poe and Allan reached a temporary rapprochement after the death of Frances Allan in 1829. Poe later failed as an officer cadet at West Point, declaring a firm wish to be a poet and writer, and he ultimately parted ways with John Allan.
Poe switched his focus to prose and spent the next several years working for literary journals and periodicals, becoming known for his own style of literary criticism. His work forced him to move among several cities, including Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York City. He married Virginia Clemm in 1836, his 13 year-old cousin. In January 1845, Poe published his poem “The Raven” to instant success, but Virginia died of tuberculosis two years after its publication. Poe planned for years to produce his own journal The Penn (later renamed The Stylus), but he died before it could be produced. He died in Baltimore on October 7, 1849 at age 40; the cause of his death is unknown and has been variously attributed to alcohol, “brain congestion”, cholera, drugs, heart disease, rabies, suicide, tuberculosis, and other causes.
Poe and his works influenced literature around the world, as well as specialized fields such as cosmology and cryptography. He and his work appear throughout popular culture in literature, music, films, and television. A number of his homes are dedicated museums today. The Mystery Writers of America present an annual award known as the Edgar Award for distinguished work in the mystery genre. He was previously featured on A Stamp A Day in a pre-Halloween post which simply quoted “The Raven,” the one and only poem I can completely recite to this day after learning it in school so many years ago.
He was born Edgar Poe in Boston on January 19, 1809, the second child of English-born actress Elizabeth Arnold Hopkins Poe and actor David Poe Jr. He had an elder brother William Henry Leonard Poe and a younger sister Rosalie Poe. Their grandfather David Poe Sr. had immigrated from County Cavan, Ireland around 1750. Edgar may have been named after a character in William Shakespeare’s King Lear which the couple were performing in 1809. His father abandoned the family in 1810, and his mother died a year later from consumption (pulmonary tuberculosis). Poe was then taken into the home of John Allan, a successful merchant in Richmond, Virginia who dealt in a variety of goods, including tobacco, cloth, wheat, tombstones, and slaves. The Allans served as a foster family and gave him the name “Edgar Allan Poe”, though they never formally adopted him.
The Allan family had Poe baptized in the Episcopal Church in 1812. John Allan alternately spoiled and aggressively disciplined his foster son. The family sailed to Britain in 1815, and Poe attended the grammar school for a short period in Irvine, Scotland (where John Allan was born) before rejoining the family in London in 1816. There he studied at a boarding school in Chelsea until summer 1817. He was subsequently entered at the Reverend John Bransby’s Manor House School at Stoke Newington, then a suburb 4 miles (6 km) north of London.
Poe moved with the Allans back to Richmond, Virginia in 1820. In October 1824, he served as the lieutenant of the Richmond youth honor guard as Richmond celebrated the visit of the Marquis de Lafayette. In March 1825, John Allan’s uncle and business benefactor William Galt died, who was said to be one of the wealthiest men in Richmond, leaving Allan several acres of real estate. The inheritance was estimated at $750,000 (equivalent to $17,000,000 in 2018). By summer 1825, Allan celebrated his expansive wealth by purchasing a two-story brick home named Moldavia.
Poe may have become engaged to Sarah Elmira Royster before he registered at the University of Virginia in February 1826 to study ancient and modern languages. The university was in its infancy, established on the ideals of its founder Thomas Jefferson. It had strict rules against gambling, horses, guns, tobacco, and alcohol, but these rules were generally ignored. Jefferson had enacted a system of student self-government, allowing students to choose their own studies, make their own arrangements for boarding, and report all wrong-doing to the faculty. The unique system was still in chaos, and there was a high dropout rate. During his time there, Poe lost touch with Royster and also became estranged from his foster father over gambling debts. He claimed that Allan had not given him sufficient money to register for classes, purchase texts, and procure and furnish a dormitory. Allan did send additional money and clothes, but Poe’s debts increased. He gave up on the university after a year but did not feel welcome returning to Richmond, especially when he learned that his sweetheart Royster had married Alexander Shelton. He traveled to Boston in April 1827, sustaining himself with odd jobs as a clerk and newspaper writer, and he started using the pseudonym Henri Le Rennet during this period.
Poe was unable to support himself, so he enlisted in the United States Army as a private on May 27, 1827, using the name “Edgar A. Perry”. He claimed that he was 22 years old even though he was 18. He first served at Fort Independence on Castle Island in Boston Harbor for five dollars a month. That same year, he released his first book, a 40-page collection of poetry titled Tamerlane and Other Poems, attributed with the byline “by a Bostonian”. Only 50 copies were printed, and the book received virtually no attention. Poe’s regiment was posted to Fort Moultrie in Charleston, South Carolina and traveled by ship on the brig Waltham on November 8, 1827.
Poe was promoted to “artificer”, an enlisted tradesman who prepared shells for artillery, and had his monthly pay doubled. He served for two years and attained the rank of Sergeant Major for Artillery (the highest rank that a noncommissioned officer could achieve); he then sought to end his five-year enlistment early. He revealed his real name and his circumstances to his commanding officer, Lieutenant Howard. Howard would only allow Poe to be discharged if he reconciled with John Allan and wrote a letter to Allan, who was unsympathetic. Several months passed and pleas to Allan were ignored; Allan may not have written to Poe even to make him aware of his foster mother’s illness. Frances Allan died on February 28, 1829, and Poe visited the day after her burial. Perhaps softened by his wife’s death, John Allan agreed to support Poe’s attempt to be discharged in order to receive an appointment to the United States Military Academy at West Point.
Poe was finally discharged on April 15, 1829, after securing a replacement to finish his enlisted term for him. Before entering West Point, Poe moved back to Baltimore for a time to stay with his widowed aunt Maria Clemm, her daughter Virginia Eliza Clemm (Poe’s first cousin), his brother Henry, and his invalid grandmother Elizabeth Cairnes Poe. Meanwhile, Poe published his second book Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane and Minor Poems in Baltimore in 1829.
Poe traveled to West Point and matriculated as a cadet on July 1, 1830. In October 1830, John Allan married his second wife Louisa Patterson. The marriage and bitter quarrels with Poe over the children born to Allan out of affairs led to the foster father finally disowning Poe. Poe decided to leave West Point by purposely getting court-martialed. On February 8, 1831, he was tried for gross neglect of duty and disobedience of orders for refusing to attend formations, classes, or church. Poe tactically pleaded not guilty to induce dismissal, knowing that he would be found guilty.
He left for New York in February 1831 and released a third volume of poems, simply titled Poems. The book was financed with help from his fellow cadets at West Point, many of whom donated 75 cents to the cause, raising a total of $170. They may have been expecting verses similar to the satirical ones that Poe had been writing about commanding officers. It was printed by Elam Bliss of New York, labeled as “Second Edition,” and including a page saying, “To the U.S. Corps of Cadets this volume is respectfully dedicated”. The book once again reprinted the long poems “Tamerlane” and “Al Aaraaf” but also six previously unpublished poems, including early versions of “To Helen”, “Israfel”, and “The City in the Sea”. He returned to Baltimore to his aunt, brother, and cousin in March 1831. His elder brother Henry had been in ill health, in part due to problems with alcoholism, and he died on August 1, 1831.
After his brother’s death, Poe began more earnest attempts to start his career as a writer, but he chose a difficult time in American publishing to do so. He was one of the first Americans to live by writing alone and was hampered by the lack of an international copyright law. American publishers often produced unauthorized copies of British works rather than paying for new work by Americans. The industry was also particularly hurt by the Panic of 1837. There was a booming growth in American periodicals around this time, fueled in part by new technology, but many did not last beyond a few issues. Publishers often refused to pay their writers or paid them much later than they promised, and Poe repeatedly resorted to humiliating pleas for money and other assistance.
After his early attempts at poetry, Poe had turned his attention to prose. He placed a few stories with a Philadelphia publication and began work on his only drama Politian. The Baltimore Saturday Visiter awarded him a prize in October 1833 for his short story “MS. Found in a Bottle”. The story brought him to the attention of John P. Kennedy, a Baltimorean of considerable means. He helped Poe place some of his stories, and introduced him to Thomas W. White, editor of the Southern Literary Messenger in Richmond, Virginia. Poe became assistant editor of the periodical in August 1835, but White discharged him within a few weeks for being drunk on the job. Poe returned to Baltimore where he obtained a license to marry his cousin Virginia on September 22, 1835, though it is unknown if they were married at that time. He was 26 and she was 13.
He was reinstated by White after promising good behavior, and he went back to Richmond with Virginia and her mother. He remained at the Messenger until January 1837. During this period, Poe claimed that its circulation increased from 700 to 3,500. He published several poems, book reviews, critiques, and stories in the paper. On May 16, 1836, he and Virginia held a Presbyterian wedding ceremony at their Richmond boarding house, with a witness falsely attesting Clemm’s age as 21.
The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket was published and widely reviewed in 1838. In the summer of 1839, Poe became assistant editor of Burton’s Gentleman’s Magazine. He published numerous articles, stories, and reviews, enhancing his reputation as a trenchant critic which he had established at the Southern Literary Messenger. Also in 1839, the collection Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque was published in two volumes, though he made little money from it and it received mixed reviews. Poe left Burton’s after about a year and found a position as assistant at Graham’s Magazine.
In June 1840, Poe published a prospectus announcing his intentions to start his own journal called The Stylus, although he originally intended to call it The Penn, as it would have been based in Philadelphia. He bought advertising space for his prospectus in the June 6, 1840 issue of Philadelphia’s Saturday Evening Post: “Prospectus of the Penn Magazine, a Monthly Literary journal to be edited and published in the city of Philadelphia by Edgar A. Poe.” The journal was never produced before Poe’s death.
Around this time, he attempted to secure a position within the administration of President Tyler, claiming that he was a member of the Whig Party. He hoped to be appointed to the Custom House in Philadelphia with help from President Tyler’s son Robert, an acquaintance of Poe’s friend Frederick Thomas. Poe failed to show up for a meeting with Thomas to discuss the appointment in mid-September 1842, claiming to have been sick, though Thomas believed that he had been drunk. Poe was promised an appointment, but all positions were filled by others.
One evening in January 1842, Virginia showed the first signs of consumption, now known as tuberculosis, while singing and playing the piano, which Poe described as breaking a blood vessel in her throat. She only partially recovered, and Poe began to drink more heavily under the stress of her illness. He left Graham’s and attempted to find a new position, for a time angling for a government post. He returned to New York where he worked briefly at the Evening Mirror before becoming editor of the Broadway Journal, and later its owner. There he alienated himself from other writers by publicly accusing Henry Wadsworth Longfellow of plagiarism, though Longfellow never responded.
On January 29, 1845, his poem “The Raven” appeared in the Evening Mirror and became a popular sensation. It made Poe a household name almost instantly, though he was paid only $9 for its publication. It was concurrently published in The American Review: A Whig Journal under the pseudonym “Quarles”. The poem is often noted for its musicality, stylized language, and supernatural atmosphere. It tells of a talking raven’s mysterious visit to a distraught lover, tracing the man’s slow fall into madness. The lover, often identified as being a student, is lamenting the loss of his love, Lenore. Sitting on a bust of Pallas, the raven seems to further distress the protagonist with its constant repetition of the word “Nevermore”. The poem makes use of folk, mythological, religious, and classical references.
Poe claimed to have written “The Raven” logically and methodically, intending to create a poem that would appeal to both critical and popular tastes, as he explained in his 1846 follow-up essay, “The Philosophy of Composition”. The poem was inspired in part by a talking raven in the novel Barnaby Rudge: A Tale of the Riots of ‘Eighty by Charles Dickens. Poe borrows the complex rhythm and meter of Elizabeth Barrett’s poem “Lady Geraldine’s Courtship”, and makes use of internal rhyme as well as alliteration throughout. The poem was soon reprinted, parodied, and illustrated. Critical opinion is divided as to the poem’s literary status, but it nevertheless remains one of the most famous poems ever written.
The Broadway Journal failed in 1846, and Poe moved to a cottage in Fordham, New York in what is now the Bronx. That home is now known as the Edgar Allan Poe Cottage, relocated to a park near the southeast corner of the Grand Concourse and Kingsbridge Road. Nearby, he befriended the Jesuits at St. John’s College, now Fordham University. Virginia died at the cottage on January 30, 1847. Biographers and critics often suggest that Poe’s frequent theme of the “death of a beautiful woman” stems from the repeated loss of women throughout his life, including his wife.
Poe was increasingly unstable after his wife’s death. He attempted to court poet Sarah Helen Whitman who lived in Providence, Rhode Island. Their engagement failed, purportedly because of Poe’s drinking and erratic behavior. There is also strong evidence that Whitman’s mother intervened and did much to derail their relationship. Poe then returned to Richmond and resumed a relationship with his childhood sweetheart Sarah Elmira Royster.
On October 3, 1849, Poe was found delirious on the streets of Baltimore, “in great distress, and… in need of immediate assistance”, according to Joseph W. Walker who found him. He was taken to the Washington Medical College where he died on Sunday, October 7, 1849 at 5:00 in the morning. He was not coherent long enough to explain how he came to be in his dire condition and, oddly, was wearing clothes that were not his own. He is said to have repeatedly called out the name “Reynolds” on the night before his death, though it is unclear to whom he was referring. Some sources say that Poe’s final words were “Lord help my poor soul”. All medical records have been lost, including his death certificate.
Newspapers at the time reported Poe’s death as “congestion of the brain” or “cerebral inflammation”, common euphemisms for death from disreputable causes such as alcoholism. The actual cause of death remains a mystery. Speculation has included delirium tremens, heart disease, epilepsy, syphilis, meningeal inflammation, cholera, and rabies. One theory dating from 1872 suggests that cooping was the cause of Poe’s death, a form of electoral fraud in which citizens were forced to vote for a particular candidate, sometimes leading to violence and even murder.
Poe’s best known fiction works are Gothic, a genre that he followed to appease the public taste. His most recurring themes deal with questions of death, including its physical signs, the effects of decomposition, concerns of premature burial, the reanimation of the dead, and mourning. Many of his works are generally considered part of the dark romanticism genre, a literary reaction to transcendentalism which Poe strongly disliked. He referred to followers of the transcendental movement as “Frog-Pondians”, after the pond on Boston Common, and ridiculed their writings as “metaphor—run mad,” lapsing into “obscurity for obscurity’s sake” or “mysticism for mysticism’s sake”. Poe once wrote in a letter to Thomas Holley Chivers that he did not dislike Transcendentalists, “only the pretenders and sophists among them”.
Beyond horror, Poe also wrote satires, humor tales, and hoaxes. For comic effect, he used irony and ludicrous extravagance, often in an attempt to liberate the reader from cultural conformity. “Metzengerstein” is the first story that Poe is known to have published and his first foray into horror, but it was originally intended as a burlesque satirizing the popular genre. Poe also reinvented science fiction, responding in his writing to emerging technologies such as hot air balloons in “The Balloon-Hoax”.
Poe wrote much of his work using themes aimed specifically at mass-market tastes. To that end, his fiction often included elements of popular pseudosciences, such as phrenology and physiognomy.
Poe’s writing reflects his literary theories, which he presented in his criticism and also in essays such as “The Poetic Principle”. He disliked didacticism and allegory, though he believed that meaning in literature should be an undercurrent just beneath the surface. Works with obvious meanings, he wrote, cease to be art. He believed that work of quality should be brief and focus on a specific single effect. To that end, he believed that the writer should carefully calculate every sentiment and idea.
Poe describes his method in writing “The Raven” in the essay “The Philosophy of Composition”, and he claims to have strictly followed this method. It has been questioned whether he really followed this system, however. T.S. Eliot said: “It is difficult for us to read that essay without reflecting that if Poe plotted out his poem with such calculation, he might have taken a little more pains over it: the result hardly does credit to the method.” Biographer Joseph Wood Krutch described the essay as “a rather highly ingenious exercise in the art of rationalization”.
During his lifetime, Poe was mostly recognized as a literary critic. Fellow critic James Russell Lowell called him “the most discriminating, philosophical, and fearless critic upon imaginative works who has written in America”, suggesting — rhetorically — that he occasionally used prussic acid instead of ink. Poe’s caustic reviews earned him the reputation of being a “tomahawk man”. A favorite target of Poe’s criticism was Boston’s acclaimed poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, who was often defended by his literary friends in what was later called “The Longfellow War”. Poe accused Longfellow of “the heresy of the didactic”, writing poetry that was preachy, derivative, and thematically plagiarized. Poe correctly predicted that Longfellow’s reputation and style of poetry would decline, concluding, “We grant him high qualities, but deny him the Future”.
Poe was also known as a writer of fiction and became one of the first American authors of the 19th century to become more popular in Europe than in the United States. Poe is particularly respected in France, in part due to early translations by Charles Baudelaire. Baudelaire’s translations became definitive renditions of Poe’s work throughout Europe.
Poe’s early detective fiction tales featuring C. Auguste Dupin laid the groundwork for future detectives in literature. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle said, “Each [of Poe’s detective stories] is a root from which a whole literature has developed…. Where was the detective story until Poe breathed the breath of life into it?” The Mystery Writers of America have named their awards for excellence in the genre the “Edgars”. Poe’s work also influenced science fiction, notably Jules Verne, who wrote a sequel to Poe’s novel The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket called An Antarctic Mystery, also known as The Sphinx of the Ice Fields. Science fiction author H.G. Wells noted, “Pym tells what a very intelligent mind could imagine about the south polar region a century ago.” In 2013, The Guardian cited The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket as one of the greatest novels ever written in the English language, and noted its influence on later authors such as Henry James, Arthur Conan Doyle, B. Traven, and David Morrell.
Like many famous artists, Poe’s works have spawned imitators. One trend among imitators of Poe has been claims by clairvoyants or psychics to be “channeling” poems from Poe’s spirit. One of the most notable of these was Lizzie Doten, who published Poems from the Inner Life in 1863, in which she claimed to have “received” new compositions by Poe’s spirit. The compositions were re-workings of famous Poe poems such as “The Bells”, but which reflected a new, positive outlook.
Even so, Poe has received not only praise, but criticism as well. This is partly because of the negative perception of his personal character and its influence upon his reputation. William Butler Yeats was occasionally critical of Poe and once called him “vulgar”. Transcendentalist Ralph Waldo Emerson reacted to “The Raven” by saying, “I see nothing in it”, and derisively referred to Poe as “the jingle man”. Aldous Huxley wrote that Poe’s writing “falls into vulgarity” by being “too poetical” — the equivalent of wearing a diamond ring on every finger.
It is believed that only 12 copies have survived of Poe’s first book Tamerlane and Other Poems. In December 2009, one copy sold at Christie’s, New York for $662,500, a record price paid for a work of American literature.
No childhood home of Poe is still standing, including the Allan family’s Moldavia estate. The oldest standing home in Richmond, the Old Stone House, is in use as the Edgar Allan Poe Museum (Richmond), though Poe never lived there. The Richmond collection includes many items that Poe used during his time with the Allan family, and also features several rare first printings of Poe works. 13 West Range is the dorm room that Poe is believed to have used while studying at the University of Virginia in 1826; it is preserved and available for visits. Its upkeep is now overseen by a group of students and staff known as the Raven Society.
The earliest surviving home in which Poe lived is in Baltimore, preserved as the Edgar Allan Poe House and Museum. Poe is believed to have lived in the home at the age of 23 when he first lived with Maria Clemm and Virginia (as well as his grandmother and possibly his brother William Henry Leonard Poe). It is open to the public and is also the home of the Edgar Allan Poe Society. Of the several homes that Poe, his wife Virginia, and his mother-in-law Maria rented in Philadelphia, only the last house has survived. The Spring Garden home, where the author lived in 1843–1844, is today preserved by the National Park Service as the Edgar Allan Poe National Historic Site. Poe’s final home is preserved as the Edgar Allan Poe Cottage in the Bronx.
In Boston, a commemorative plaque on Boylston Street is several blocks away from the actual location of Poe’s birth. The house which was his birthplace at 62 Carver Street no longer exists; also, the street has since been renamed “Charles Street South”. A “square” at the intersection of Broadway, Fayette, and Carver Streets had once been named in his honor, but it disappeared when the streets were rearranged. In 2009, the intersection of Charles and Boylston Streets (two blocks north of his birthplace) was designated Edgar Allan Poe Square. In March 2014, fundraising was completed for construction of a permanent memorial sculpture at this location. The winning design by Stefanie Rocknak depicts a life-sized Poe striding against the wind, accompanied by a flying raven; his suitcase lid has fallen open, leaving a “paper trail” of literary works embedded in the sidewalk behind him. The public unveiling on October 5, 2014, was attended by former U.S. poet laureate Robert Pinsky.
Other Poe landmarks include a building in the Upper West Side where Poe temporarily lived when he first moved to New York. A plaque suggests that Poe wrote “The Raven” here. The bar still stands where legend says that Poe was last seen drinking before his death, in Fell’s Point in Baltimore. The drinking establishment is now known as “The Horse You Came In On”, and local lore insists that a ghost whom they call “Edgar” haunts the rooms above.
A bottle of cognac and three roses were left at Poe’s original grave marker for decades every January 19 by an unknown visitor affectionately referred to as the “Poe Toaster”. Sam Porpora was a historian at the Westminster Church in Baltimore where Poe is buried, and he claimed on August 15, 2007, that he had started the tradition in 1949. Porpora said that the tradition began in order to raise money and enhance the profile of the church. His story has not been confirmed, and some details which he gave to the press are factually inaccurate. The Poe Toaster’s last appearance was on January 19, 2009, the day of Poe’s bicentennial.
Colnect lists just six stamps portraying Edgar Allan Poe, although I know of at least one more. Hungary actually released a single stamp a year before the first one by the United States. Scott #CB8 was issued on October 16, 1948, an air mail semi-postal denominated at 8 Hungarian fillér and printed by the photogravure process in brown olive ink. There were 235,200 stamps issued, perforated 12 x 12½ with a watermark showing the national coat of arms.
Today, when the United States Postal Service honors a famous American on a stamp, it often celebrates the anniversary of his or her birth. Issued on October 7, 1949, in Richmond, Virginia, Scott #986 commemorates the 100th anniversary of Edgar Allan Poe’s death. The design replicated the format of the 1940 Famous American Series of thirty-five stamps. The U.S. Post Office Department had considered including Poe in the series at that time. The bright red violet 3-cent stamp was printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing on the rotary press and issued in panes of 70, perforated 10½ x 11, in a total quantity of 122,633,000.
A few detractors criticized the selection. Writing in the October 11, 1949, issue of Western Stamp Collector, Doris Dedlow responded, “Why, some might ask, should a postage stamp be issued to honor a man with Poe’s reputation. Accounts of his frequent drunkenness, instability and self indulgent character have almost become legend.” The answer was, when “one picks up a volume of Poe’s works and is fascinated by the beauty of his weird rhythmic poetry, or drawn cunningly into the neatly conceived and intriguing plots of his short stories, the reader cannot help but recognize the ability of this great man of letters.”
Deputy Assistant Postmaster General Robert E. Fellers, added in his speech at the first day ceremony at Richmond, “Although Poe’s life span was short, he contributed so much to literature that his name will live forever. His masterpieces have translated into almost every foreign language, and it is doubtful that there is another American writer whose works have been more universally read or who has had greater influence in the field of writing than Edgar Allan Poe . . . . I dare say there is hardly a schoolchild today who is not familiar with his famous poems such as The Raven, The Gold Bug, and Annabel Lee. In addition to his poems, Poe is considered to be the originator of the mystery story and the father of the short story.”
Bureau of Engraving and Printing artists referred to an original engraving of Poe by F.T. Stuart, obtained from the Library of Congress. Robert L. Miller prepared the model for the stamp using the design of the poets group of the Famous Americans Series of 1940, which was the work of William A. Roach. Richard M. Bower engraved the portrait; Charles A. Brooks engraved the frame; Axel W. Christensen and William B. Wells engraved the lettering and numerals.
On January 16, 2009, Edgar Allan Poe was portrayed on a second U.S. stamp released in Richmond to commemorate the 200th anniversary of his birth (Scott #4377). The 42-cent self-adhesive stamp was based on a painting by Michael J. Deas and designed by art director Carl T. Herrman. It was printed by Avery Dennison’s Security Printing Division using offset lithography and issued in panes of 20 with serpentine die cut perforations of 10¾. The following month saw the release of Poe stamps by Bulgaria on February 6 (Michel #4883) and Monaco on February 16 (Scott #2539). The Bulgarian stamp is a 1=лв (Bulgarian lev) lithographed stamp issued in a quantity of 15,000, perforated 13½, in a set that also included stamps picturing Abraham Lincoln, Nikolai Gogol and Charles Darwin.
The release from Monaco is a triangular-shaped stamp recess-printed in sheets of 8 by philaposte France, denominated 1,70 euros and perforated 12¼. It was accompanied by a square stamp portraying Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.
A stamp released by San Marino appeared on June 6, 2009 (Michel #2392). While previous Poe-themed stamps had included a portrait of the writer as the central design element, this 0.36-euro stamp features a cat and ball of yarn to recall Poe’s short story “The Black Cat” as well as the name of a character created by Poe. The stamp was designed by Anna Malpeli and printed by Joh Enschedé Security Printers of The Netherlands using offset lithography in sheets of 20, perforated 14 x 13¼, in a total quantity of 80,000. The set of stamps also included commemorations of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and Raymond Chandler.
“The Black Cat” was first published in the August 19, 1843, edition of The Saturday Evening Post and is a study of the psychology of guilt, often paired in analysis with Poe’s “The Tell-Tale Heart”. In both, a murderer carefully conceals his crime and believes himself unassailable, but eventually breaks down and reveals himself, impelled by a nagging reminder of his guilt. Le Chevalier C. Auguste Dupin made his first appearance in Poe’s “The Murders in the Rue Morgue” (1841), widely considered the first detective fiction story. He reappears in “The Mystery of Marie Rogêt” (1842) and “The Purloined Letter” (1844). Poe created the Dupin character before the word detective had been coined. The character laid the groundwork for fictional detectives to come, including Sherlock Holmes, and established most of the common elements of the detective fiction genre.
An additional release picturing Edgar Allan Poe not listed on Colnect was issued by São Tomé and Príncipe on January 25, 2010 (listed on StampWorld.com as #4413). The 100,000-dobra souvenir sheet portrays Poe and a raven sitting atop a stack of books in the selvage while the stamp itself pictures Oscar Wilde. The dobra abbreviated Db and is divided into 100 cêntimos. The first dobra (STD) was introduced in 1977, replacing the escudo at par. Due to inflation, in 2018 the dobra was redenominated at a rate of 1000 to 1, and given the new currency code STN. São Tomé and Príncipe signed a deal with Portugal in 2009, linking the dobra with the euro. The exchange rate was fixed at 1 EUR = 24,500 STD on January 1, 2010, which means that the new dobra is pegged to the euro at €1 = 24.5 STN / nDb. The name derives from Portuguese dóbra, meaning “doubloon.”
The “Famous Poets and Writers” set also included a miniature sheet of five 20,000-dobra stamps picturing Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, William Shakespeare, Lord Byron, Charles Dickens, and Friedrich Schiller (StampWorld.com #4408-4412). I do not have copies of any of the São Tomé and Príncipe stamps; the images above are sourced from eBay.
If you know of any additional stamps portraying Edgar Allan Poe or his works, please leave a comment below.